prof. dr. E.A. Alkema

Telephone number: +31 (0)71 527 7719
Faculty / Department: Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, Instituut voor Publiekrecht, Staats- en Bestuursrecht
Office Address: Kamerlingh Onnes Gebouw
Steenschuur 25
2311 ES Leiden
Room number A163




I. Personal data

born: 18th of January 1939 at Eelde, the Netherlands

nationality: Netherlands

1967 married to Catharina Maria Hilbrands


address: Cobetstraat 28, 2313 KC Leiden, the Netherlands; phone: [31][0]71-5143162

offices: Faculty of Law, Steenschuur 25, 2311 ES Leiden (PB 9520, 2300 RA Leiden), the Netherlands; phone: [0]71-5277713




II. Education - academic and other qualifications


-       studies at the faculties of law and economics, University of Groningen; BA (econ.) 1960; LLM 1962

-       1962-1963 School for Advanced International Studies Johns Hopkins University Bologna Center (Italy)

-       1963 free doctorate faculty of law (major in economics and fiscal policy)

-       1978 doctorate faculty of law Leiden University with honours (cum laude) entitled: Studies over Europese grondrechten (Studies on European fundamental rights), Deventer

-       2001 doctor iuris honoris causa University of Antwerp

-       2009 decoration (Ridder In de Orde van de Nederlandse Leeuw)



III. Professional activities


a. judicial and quasi-judicial activities

-       1980- 2009 substitute judge in the court of appeal (originally of Leeuwarden, later of Amsterdam)

-       2000-2004 part-time member of the Judicial Division of the Council of State (Raad van State) (supreme administrative court)

-       1993-1996 and since 2004 member of the Adviescommissie grondrechten en functie-uitoefening ambtenaren (advisory board on fundamental rights and functioning of (national) civil servants)

-       1996-1999 Netherlands member of the European Commission of Human Rights (Strasbourg)

-       2001-2004 one of the two (originally three) independent experts advising the Secretary-General of the Council of Europe on cases of alleged political prisoners in Armenia and Azerbaijan (awarded with the Council of Europe’s pro merito medal)


b.academic activities

-       1966-1973 staff member Europa Instituut, faculty of law Leiden University

-       1973-1981 senior staff member faculty of law, Groningen University, dep't of constitutional law

-       1980-1996 extra-ordinary professorship in human rights, faculty of law University of Amsterdam

-       1981-1985 full professorship in introduction of law, faculty of law Groningen University

-       1984 and 1994 visiting professor constitutional law and human rights, University of the Netherlands Antilles

-       1985-2004 full professor of constitutional and administrative law, faculty of law Leiden University

-       1986-1990 visiting professor for European human rights, College of Europe, Bruges, Belgium

-       since 2003 (honorary) Van Asbeck-professor (implementation of international law in the domestic legal order)

-       1981-2002 co-ordinator and teacher of courses on human rights for the judiciary and bar (Studiecentrum rechtspleging)

-       guest lectures at the universities of Essex (UK), Helsinki ((Finland), Ghent (Belgium), Warshaw and Poznan (Poland), Columbia (New York, U.S.A.), the Saar (Saarbrücken, F.R.G.),Strasbourg (France); other lectures in Moscow (USSR), Sofia (Bulgaria), Montreal (Canada)

-       since 1989 chairman of the F.M. van Asbeck Center for Human Rights Studies, faculty of law Leiden

-       1999-2001 chairman of the department of public law, faculty of law Leiden


-       other academic and related activities

-       since 1979 of the advisory board of the Nederlands Juristencomité voor de Mensenrechten,

-       1979-2008 member of the advisory board of the NJCM-Bulletin

-       1982-1988 Member of the Board of Studie- en Informatiecentrum Mensenrechten (S.I.M.) Utrecht

-       1982-1990 Member of the Board of editors Netherlands Yearbook of International Law

-       1984-1993 chairman of the research project Grondrechten-evaluatie-onderzoek, an evaluation of the materialization of fundamental constitutional rights (introduced in the Constitution in 1983), commissioned by the Ministry of the Interior

-       1987-1996 and since 2000 member of the Dutch Helsinki Committee

-       1987-1996 member (later chairman) of the Kirchheiner foundation for the promotion of the law of ombudsman and human rights

-       1995-2000 correspondent for human rights of Nederlands Juristenblad

-       since 2006 member of the Board of Trustees of the Center for International Legal Cooperation (CILC)

-       2009-2010 member of the Committee for the (periodical) Evaluation of the research of the faculties of law in the Netherlands (Commissie-Koers)

-       member of the International Law Association; of the Fédération Internationale de Droit Européen and of the Netherlands Comparative Law Association (branch of the International Academy of Comparative Law)



IV. Further activities


-       1970-1973 member of the board of directors of Co-op Nederland and Co-op U.A. (two principal Netherlands consumer co-operatives)

-       1979 Dutch delegate to the UN seminar on recourse procedures for victims of racial discrimination (Geneva)

-       1981-1983 Netherlands expert in the sub-committee of the Council of Europe for the promotion of education and information in the field of human rights

-       1983-1985 member of the Commissie vereenvoudigde afdoening lichte overtredingen van verkeersvoorschriften (advisory group for the Bill on the administrative enforcement of sanctions of small offenses)(Commissie-Mulder)

-       counsel in a dozen proceedings of individual applicants before the European Commission and European Court of Human Rights

-       adviser to the autonomous governments of the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba




V. Publications


Publications on constitutional matters and on human rights, especially the European Convention on Human Rights, the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights and related comparative and constitutional legal problems.


-       -Preliminary reports (preadviezen)on human rights, particularly, the European Convention on Human Rights for: Netherlands International Law Association (1976); Netherlands Bar Association (1981); Vereniging voor de vergelijkende studie van het recht van België en Nederland (1985); Staatsrechtconferentie (Leiden 1990); Nederlandse Juristenvereniging (1995)

-       -Annotations  (over 200) on international and national (court) decisions on human rights, especially in Nederlandse Jurisprudentie since 1975 and in Common Market Law Review, Europäische Grundrechte Zeitschrift, Ars Aequi, Sociaal Maandblad Arbeid, Administratiefrechtelijke Beslissingen, Tijdschrift voor Arbitrage.

-       -Columns on the European Convention on Human Rights in Bestuurswetenschappen 1972-1996

-       -co-editor of 2nd (1972), 3rd (1983), and 4th 1992 editions of the European Convention on Human Rights and other international treaties on human rights (with excerpts from national and international case-law)


Some publications in English, French and German


-       -The Application of Internationally Guaranteed Human Rights in the Municipal Order, in: Essays on the Development of the International Legal Order in memory of H.F. van Panhuys, Alphen a.d. Rijn 1980

-       -Fundamental Human Rights in the Netherlands Legal Order in: H.F. Panhuys e.a. International Law in the Netherlands Vol. III Alphen a.d. Rijn 1980 p. 109-146

-       -Conscientious objections in the Netherlands, in: Netherlands Reports to the 11th International Congress of Comparative Law, Deventer 1982

-       -Foreign Relations in the Netherlands Constitution, NILR 1984 p. 307-331

-       -Transnational protection of human rights in: Netherlands reports to the 12th Congress of the International Academy of Comparative Law, The Hague 1987

-       -The third-party applicability or "Drittwirkung" of the European Convention on Human Rights, in: Protecting Human Rights: The European Dimension, Studies in honour of G.J.Wiarda, Köln 1988

-       -The Protection of the Freedom of Expression in the Constitution and in Civil Law, in: Netherlands Reports to the 13th International Congress of Comparative Law, The Hague 1990

-       -General Report, in E.A. Alkema e.a. eds., The Domestic Implementation of the European Convention on Human Rights in Eastern and Western Europe, Proceedings of the Seminar held in Leiden 24-26 October 1991, All-European Human Rights Yearbook, Vol. 2 (1992) Kehl 1992

-       -Constitutional Law in: J.M.J. Chorus e.a., Introduction to Dutch Law for Foreign Lawyers, 4th ed. Deventer 2006

-       -Freedom of Association and civil society in: Council of Europe, Freedom of Association (Reykjavik 26-28 August 1993), Dordrecht, the Netherlands 1994

-       -The Effects of the European Convention on Human Rights and other International Human Rights Instruments on the Netherlands Legal Order, in: R. Lawson and M. de Blois eds., The Dynamics of the Protection of Human rights in Europe (Essays in honour of H.G. Schermers), Dordrecht 1994

-       (in co-operation with M. Ferschtman, J.P. Loof e.a.), The role and independence of the judiciary and the administration of justice in the perspective of the rule of Law, Introductory Report to the conference of the European Communities, the Council of Europe and the Netherlands Ministry of Justice (Noordwijk 23-24 June 1997), on the Rule of Law, Leiden 1997

-       Civil servants and their “civil rights” under the ECHR, in: M. de Salvia and M.E. Villiger (eds.), The Birth of European Human Rights Law (Liber amicorum C.A. Nörgaard) Baden-Baden 1998 p. 15-24

-       Die Erfahrungen der Niederlande mit der direkten Anwendbarkeit völkerrechtlichter Verträge inbesondere der EMRK, Zeitschrift für Europarechtliche Studien ZEUS, 1998 p. 39-52

-       La protection des droits fondamentaux sociaux dans l’ordre juridique des Pays-Bas, in: J. Iliopoulos-Strangas (éd.), La protection des droits sociaux fondamentaux dans les Etats membres de l’Union européenne, Baden-Baden etc. 1999 p. 635-665

-       Les Pays-Bas face au Pacte International relatif aux droits civils et politiques, Petites Affiches (La Loi) 25 mai 2000 p. 51-54

-       The European Convention as a constitution and its Court as a constitutional court, in: P. Mahoney e.a. eds., Protecting Human Rights: The European Perspective (Studies in memory of Rolf Ryssdal), Köln etc. 2000 p. 41-63

-       The concept of property - in particular in the European Convention on Human Rights, in: J.P.Loof e.a. (eds.), The Right to property, Maastricht 2000 p. 17-28

-       Access to Justice under the ECHR and judicial policy in: Afmaelisrit Thor Vilhjalmsson, Reykjavik 2000 p. 21-37

-       The Guarantee of the uniform interpretation and the principle of the independence of judges, Report presented to the 6th meeting of the Presidents of European Supreme Courts, Warsaw 11-13 October 2000, Council of Europe, Strasbourg

-       Channelling International Law into the Domestic Legal Order – Some Practices and Constitutional Problems in: H. Snijders and S. Vogenauer eds., Content and Meaning of National Law in the Context of Transnational Law. Oxford 2009 p. 1-19


Leiden , April 2010

Last Modified: 20-06-2016